define isotopes with best example
define isotopes with example.
Ans– Atoms of the same element having the same atomic number but different atomic masses, are called isotopes. This means isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons in their nuclei. For example, carbon has two isotopes.
(i) 126C—Atomic number of 6 and mass no. 12 and thus has 6 neutrons.
(ii) 146C—— Atomic number of 6 and mass no. 14 and thus has 8 neutrons.
State the similar properties of isotopes.
Ans- Properties of isotopes are :
(i) Isotopes of an element have same atomic number.
(ii) Isotopes of an element have similar chemical properties.
(iii) Isotopes of an element have similar no. of electrons.
(iv) Isotopes of an element have similar electronic configurations.
Example. The three isotopes of oxygen are 1680, 1780, 1880. They have same atomic no i.e., 8) and same no. of electrons (i.e., 8) and same electronic configuration (i.e., 2, 6).
What are the uses of isotopes ?
Ans- Isotopes have the following uses :
(i) Treatment of diseases-Radioactive isotopes are used for the treatment of dreadful diseases like cancer. Cobalt-60 is used to kill malignant cells in patients suffering fromcancer.
(ii) Radioactive isotopes are used in chemical analysis.
(iii) Diseases in plants are investigated by using radioactive isotopes.
(iv) Production of energy : Uranium-235 can be subjected to fission process and thus production of electricity.
(v) Dating of plants, animals/human beings obtained from ancient times after excavation by using carbon-14.
Explain why, carbon-14 isotope is radioactive whereas carbon-12 is not.
Ans- Carbon-12 atom has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, so it is not radioactive. C-14 atom contains 6 protons but 8 neutrons and thus has more neutrons than protons in its nucleus, therefore, its nucleus becomes unstable and shows radioactivity.
Define the term “Half-life”.
Ans- Radioactive elements are unstable and disintegrate with time emitting alpha and beta particles along with gamma rays. The rate of disintegration depends on the amount of substance. As the amount of the substance decreases, disintegration becomes slower and slower. But it takes a very long time for whole of the substance to decay. So the rate of radioactive decay is measured in terms of its half-life. The time taken by half of the atoms of a radioactive element to disintegrate is called its half-life. All radioisotopes are characterised by their half-lives. The half-life of radium (Ra-220) is 1590 years. Thus, if we start with 1 gm of radium today, then after 1590 years, only 0.5 gram would be left.
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