What is motion ?
Q 1- Define the terms rest and motion. Give one example for each.
Ans- Rest– A body is said to be at rest if it does not change its position with respect to its surroundings. A table lying in a room is at rest with respect to the walls of the room.
Motion– A body is said to be in motion if it changes its position with respect to its surroundings. Thus, motion means movement of bodies. A car running on the road is in motion with respect to the lamp posts, trees or bus stop on the roadside.
Q2- Give one example each for directly and indirectly perceivable motions.
Ans- (i) Motion of vehicles moving on a road can be easily and directly perceived.
(ii) We perceive the motion of air indirectly by observing the movement of dust, leaves and branches of trees.
Q3- Show that rest and motion are relative terms. with examples
Ans- An object may be at rest relative to one surrounding object and at the same time it may be in motion relative to some other object. For example, a passenger sitting in a moving train is at rest relative to other passengers of his compartment. But since he is sharing the motion of the train, so he is in motion relative to the outside trees, lamp posts, railway stations, etc. Thus, rest and motion are relative terms.
Q4- Describe the various types of motions observed in bodies.
Ans- Different types of motions :
1- Translatory motion– When a body moves as a whole along a straight or curved path, it is said to be in translatory motion. It is again of two types
(i) Rectilinear motion– Here a body moves as a whole along a straight path. For example, a train moving on straight rails has translatory rectilinear motion.
(ii) Curvilinear motion– Here a body moves as a whole along a curved path. For example, motion of a bicycle taking a turn along a curved path.
2-Rotatory motion– When a body rotates about a fixed point or axis, it has rotatory motion. For example, motion of a flywheel about a shaft.
3- Vibratory or oscillatory motion. -When a body moves to and fro about a mean position again and again, it has vibratory or oscillatory motion. For example, the motion of the pendulum of a wall-clock.
4- Complex motion. Sometimes, the motion of a body may be a combination of more than one types of motion. For example, a ball rolling down an inclined plane has both translatory and rotatory motions.
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